Deer in Bushy Park in spring
Bushy Park

Working with wildlife in the heart of the city

We’re working hard to provide the best environment for wildlife across London’s eight Royal Parks. Here’s a look at the work we do and why we do it.

The Royal Parks contain more than 170,000 trees and shrubs (some are more than 500 years old and classed as ancient!), and thousands of species of animal and plants live in the 5,000 acres managed by us, The Royal Parks charity.

But these are enclosed environments within an urban setting, where wildlife cannot be completely left to run wild. Over time, populations of some species may grow to an unsustainable level – potentially harming other species and the landscape.

It’s down to us to make sure that wildlife is monitored and cared for so that all species can co-exist and thrive in the parks’ delicate ecosystems.

And this requires round-the-calendar monitoring and management which we carry out to the highest standards.

As much as possible, we strive to leave wildlife to co-exist as nature intended. But occasionally, we do need to step in.

Hedgehog
© Hugh Clarke
Hedgehog

Supporting vulnerable species

To start with we’re running a number of programs to support struggling species.

We’re protecting the increasingly vulnerable hedgehog. They’re declining across the UK because of habitat loss and poor management of hedgerows. And there are very few places you’ll see one in London. In fact The Regent’s Park is now the only place you’ll find a breeding population in central London. Our hedgehog team works in The Regent’s Park in May and September every year to monitor the prickly creatures and to find ways to create the best habitat for them to help them do well - for instance they need somewhere to hibernate, so our park management team is careful not to always clear piles of leaves at the base of trees

We’re also collecting information about grassland insects to help park managers provide better habitats for wildlife, re-establishing meadows just half a mile from Oxford Street which we hope will become a haven for many species.

Peacock butterfly
© Tony Duckett
Peacock butterfly

Maintaining the ecosystem

But there is the other side of the coin to consider. When there is absolutely no alternative, management can also involve humanely controlling certain animals as a last resort. Without this careful control other species across the parks could fail to thrive or disappear altogether.

For example we may need to destroy rats if populations become too large, as they can carry diseases and parasites that are potentially harmful to humans and other animals.

We may need to control small numbers of pigeons if numbers get out of control as they can carry disease. Or we may need to manage crows and magpies, which are predatory birds that raid the nests of other birds, stealing eggs and chicks.

Importantly The Royal Parks is also an expert manager of enclosed deer herds in Richmond and Bushy Parks. In Richmond Park, more than 600 Red and Fallow deer have been roaming freely since 1637 and in Bushy Park a population of more than 300 deer have lived there since the times of Henry VIII. The deer have played a major role in the history of the parks and have shaped the landscape too, creating grasslands of such quality that these parks have been designated sites of special scientific interest. But they wouldn’t be the strong and healthy creatures they are today if it wasn’t for expert management. The herds are under veterinary supervision, and we cull the animals during two periods each year to keep them at a sustainable size.

Without population control, excessive herd sizes would lead to sickness in the deer through a build-up of parasites and diseases, with weaker deer vulnerable to exposure from the cold during winter.  We also want to ensure that only healthy deer breed each year to maintain a strong herd in the years to come.

And finally some animals not only damage other wildlife but also the landscape. For example squirrels predate bird’s nests, eating young birds and eggs, but also can cause major damage to trees by stripping bark, increasing their susceptibility to disease or even death, as well as removing flower buds from trees and shrubs. Populations could grow out of control if they were not humanely controlled. And unfortunately numbers of squirrels are increasing at a greater rate than nature intended because of visitor feeding.

Parakeets too eat shoots, buds and seeds from trees causing extensive damage. We have stepped in, in the past, to control the numbers of these birds. But the good news is these populations now appear to be stabilising. As with all wildlife we will continue to monitor the situation.

We don’t take any of this lightly. Our ultimate aim is to ensure that no animal suffers and our teams are fully trained in animal welfare, operating to the highest standards.

Short-tailed vole
© Tony Duckett
Short-tailed vole

We can all do our bit

Visitors can help too. It might seem a bit of harmless fun throwing a few crusts to the ducks, particularly in a busy city like London, and the desire to feed wildlife comes from a good place, but leaving wildlife alone is often the kindest thing to do. We ask vistors not to feed the wildlife. There is an abundance of natural food in the parks for all wildlife to feed on, including insects and wildflower seeds.

Excessive feeding in the parks encourages large groups of birds such as gulls and crows. They bully other birds, stealing their eggs and killing their chicks. Leftover food can attract rats, and water quality can be impacted through uneaten soggy bread and waterfowl faeces. Feeding from the public also attracts large numbers of waterfowl, which leads to overcrowding and stress, and helps wildlife diseases spread.

It also would be a huge help if people could pick up their dog waste. Worming agents given to dogs contain chemicals called bisphosphates, which make the way into the dog’s faeces. This can then act as insecticide – and destroy the populations of insects that provide the basis for a thriving ecosystem of plants and animals. Another way to help would be to make sure dogs that have had flea treatments are kept out of waterways for at least a week. This is because pet flea treatments contain strong insecticides that are highly toxic to aquatic invertebrates.

Through this effective management we’re able to create the best environment for all wildlife in our parks, so that visitors can interact with nature on their doorsteps, stepping away from the hustle and bustle of city life and into the tranquillity of the park land.

And together with your help we’ll be able to continue to provide thriving green spaces for millions to enjoy for many years to come.

Azure damselfly
© Tony Duckett
Azure damselfly

Further reading

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